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Basic Petroleum System, Prospects and Careers in Oil Industries December 17, 2011

Posted by ugmsc in Course and Workshop Summary.
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Basic petroleum system is a process to find out hydrocarbon containing in the subsurface. Some components must be present on the basic petroleum system such as source rock, reservoir rock, migration, trap, and seal rock. Appropriate timing of formation in the petroleum system related to the processes of generation, migration and accumulation are necessary for hydrocarbons to accumulate and be preserved. Some geological structures is also an important part in the formation of petroleum system because some geological structure can be the place of the hydrocarbon accumulation and where the hydrocarbon can be trapped.

There are some steps used by oil company to develop the hydrocarbon reservoir. The steps are including exploration, appraisal, development and production. Exploration is the step of finding and studying the required location to be developed. Appraisal or delineation is the step of taking decision whether the resources will be developed or not based on the data that has been studied. If the appraisal is positive, the next step is development. Development includes building the platform, making the drilling well and choosing the production support. The next step is the production, after the development has done, the resources will be readily produces. If the production finished, the oil company must make a restoration to the location where the exploration has done.

Geoscientists are playing a key role in finding and developing oil and gas reserves: Geophysicists, Geologists and Reservoir Engineers. Acquire the location of hydrocarbon accumulation, analyze the subsurface data and interpret subsurface condition using the data-all fall under the scope of geoscientists as petroleum engineers. After they discover the reservoirs, they are involved in working with geologists and other specialists for examining the geologic formation and the nature of the rock containing the reservoir, determining the drilling methods to be used, and monitoring the drilling and production activities. They also work on designing tools and operation procedures in order to gain efficiency in the recovery of oil and gas. Computers are used by petroleum engineers to calculate the method of recovery of petroleum from different reservoirs. Computers simulated the models and designs of drilling and other equipment.

There are examples here which explains the activities in the petroleum industry. In this case is in the Mahakam block, in east Kalimantan. The steps used to explore in this block is the same with the explanation above, exploration, appraisal, development and production. First time exploration held in this block was still on shore, just in the area around the delta. After that, as the technology and the principe of geology keep developing, there are many exploration which are held off shore, in the shallow marine or even deep marine.  In this block there are many fields that are producing gas and oil, such as Handil, Peciko, Bekapai, Tunu, Tambora etc. All of these blocks are explaining that in Indonesia there are still many reservation of oil & gas. In Mahakam block, the exploration of gas is abundant, the gas production is even bigger than the oil prodution in this block. Tunu field has the biggest reservation of gas in this block and Handil field, the first field ever explored in this block, is the biggest oil reservations in this block.

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