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One Day Course Review: Hydrocarbon Prospect in Western Indonesia March 30, 2011

Posted by ugmsc in Course and Workshop Summary.


Petroleum is a natural yellow-to-black flammable liquid hydrocarbon found beneath the earth’s surface. While, Hydrocarbon is an organic compound made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms.

Pict 1. Triangle chart of oil and gas resources

Recently oil and gas production in Indonesia has declined. Data in 1994 shown Indonesian oil production is about 1.500 million barrels per day, but in 2008 only about 1.000 million barrels per day. While data in 2002 shown Indonesian gas production is about 1.430 million barrels per day, but in 2008 only 1.200 million barrels per day.

Pict 2. Chart of Indonesian oil and gas production.


Based on MIGAS Law No.22 year 2001 section 1 verse 8 and 9 :

Eksplorasi adalah kegiatan yang bertujuan untuk memperoleh informasi mengenai kondisi geologi untuk menemukan dan memperoleh perkiraan cadangan Minyak dan Gas Bumi di Wilayah kerja yang ditentukan.”

Eksploitasi adalah rangkaian kegiatan yang bertujuan untuk memproduksikan Minyak dan Gas Bumi dari Wilayah Kerja yang ditentukan, yang terdiri atas pemboran dan penyelesaian sumur, pembangunan sarana pengangkutan, penyimpanan, dan pengolahan untuk pemisahan dan pemurnian Minyak dan Gas Bumi di lapangan serta kegiatan lain yang mendukungnya.”\

Quest methodology of petroleum exploration are derived to 2 part, that is :

  1. Consider Tectonis Movement, characteristic of sedimentary basin and Petroleum System. In this part, economic factor not important (pure science)
  2. Consider Play and Prospect Of Oil and Gas Production. In this part, economic very important.


Tectonic is analysis of regional structure with phase that same with structure analysis, that is :

–          Descriptive analysis (regional geometry)

–          Regional kinematic analysis

–          Regional dinamic analysis

Observation change of geometry form of crust not only is indicated by rock structure pattern, however can be observed by :

–          Magmatism history (petrogenesis)

–          Track of pressure and temperature in metamorfic rock

–          Change of sedimentation direction

–          Paleomagnetic

–          Fossils analysis

Pict 3. Sundaland and Australia in red. Microcontinents in dark green. Thinned continental crust in yellow. Uncoloured areas are oceanic or island arc material. Notice Wallace’s floral-faunal line dividing Asiatic from Australasian.

Sunda is a collage of elements from Eastern Gondwana accreted to Eurasia. The major suture of Sunda to South China was Late Triassic. There were other peripheral collisions in Cretaceous.

Sedimentary Basin

“A segment of the earth’s crust which has been downwarp usually for considerable time, but with intermittent risings and sinkings. Sediments in such basins  increases in thickness toward the center of the basin.” (Landes, 1951).

Part of the earth’s crust where sedimentary strata have been  deposited in much greater thickness than its surrounding area.

Pict 4. Basin concept

Western Indonesian Basins

A common middle to late eocene timing for initial basin rifting and associated fluvio-lacustrine fills. Transgression from the middle Oligocene through the middle Miocene with fluvial reservoirs being succeded by the main deltic and carbonat reservoirs in the late Oligocene to early Miocene and regional seals being deposited in the middle Miocene at maximum transgression. Late miocene through Pliocene compressional structuring events. Significant geological differences are primarily controlled by basin position relative to the Sundaland.

Pict 5. Indonesian Tertiary Sedimentary Basin (BP MIGAS-IAGI, 2008).

Paleogene basin development :

  1. Rifting and rift-valley basins

–          Sumatra-west java rift basins

–          East java rift basins

–          Southeast kalimantan rift basins

–          East kalimantan rift basins

–          Natuna rift basins

  1. Collisions and foreland basins

–          Barito basins

–          Pasir and asem-asem basins

  1. Subduction, fore–arc basins

–          Southern west java fore-arc basins

–          Western kalimantan fore-arc basins

–          Central kalimantan fore-arc basin (Upper Kutei basin)

Petroleum System

The essential elements and processes and all genetically-related hydrocarbons that occur in petroleum shows, and accumulations whose provenance is a single pod of active source rock. Componens of elements are source rock, migration route, reservoir rock, seal rock and trap. And Componen of processes are generation, migration, accumulation, preservation and timing.

Pict 6. Process of crude oil (elements and processes).

Pict 7. Petroleum system map of western indonesia

All of the most prolific basin to date are located in Western Indonesia. These include basins of North Sumatra, Central Sumatra, South Sumatra, Sunda Asri, Northwest Java, East Java, Barito, Kutei, Tarakan, West Natuna and East Natuna. In Eastern Indonesia only the Salawati Basin is considered to be mature. Eastern Indonesia has large-giant hydrocarbon potential at Mesozoic and Paleozoic objectives, as shown by discoveries at Tangguh complex, Oseil, Abadi, NW shelf of Australia, and Central Range of PNG.

Play and Prospect (Kutai Basin)

  • Definition

Play is the elemental part of a petroleum system, and a recognized as having one or more accumulation of hydrocarbon identified by a common geological character of reservoir, trap, and seal; timing and migration; preservation; a common engineering character of location, environment, and fluid and flow properties; or a combination of these.


Model of a petroleum system Consists of a group prospects (and discovered fields, if any) that share common geological attributes of the various prerequisites for hydrocarbon accumulation.

Pict 8. Relationship between Play and Prospect

Play: A group of prospects within a given geographical area in which a set of common geological factors, such as reservoir rock, trap and the formation of hydrocarbons from a mature source rock, must be present simultaneously in order that petroleum accumulation can occur.

Definition of an exploration play should include:

• Trapping mechanism

• Reservoir rock – type and age

• Location (delimited area)

Pict 9. Regional play types of Western Indonesia

Definition of prospect


•         An area that is a potential site of mineral deposit, in our case petroleum, based on preliminary exploration.

•         It is initially defined by the trapping mechanism, such as anticline, reef build up, fault trap, channel sands, etc.).

•         A geological or geophysical anomaly, especially onerecommended for additional exploratory work.


•         Lead – geometric indications of a possible trap

•         Prospect – 4-way closure is ascertained to some degree

•         Drillable Prospect – prognosis of other prerequisites are favorable or risks are acceptable

Pict 10. Relation Among Play-Prospect-Basin

Pict 11. Concept of play and prospect


Pict 12. Kutei Basin

–          Kutei basin have been explored since last century 19 th

–          Exploration activity produced discovery reserve more than 22 BBOE.

Pict 13. Geological map of Kutei

Pict 14. Stratigraphy of kutai basin

Pict 15. Regional section of kutei basin.


The Photo Session


How to download the files?

1. Download all parts from these links:




2. Extract “Hydrocarbon Prospect in West Indonesia.part1.rar” with winrar

3. Other parts will be extracted too



1. michel - April 1, 2011

Nice post..
Keep posting guys..

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